Swimming is a sport characterized by a medium-high energy expenditure.

Depending on the level of intensity at which it is practiced, calorie consumption varies between 10 and 25 kcal/minute, on average 600 kcal/hour; it is lower than that of a runner or a cyclist.

The better the swimmer's technical quality, the lower his energy expenditure.

Calorie consumption increases exponentially as speed increases in the freestyle, backstroke and butterfly, while in a more linear way in the breaststroke. Swimming is a mixed "aerobic-anaerobic" type of sport, in which I am mainlyi CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS to meet energy needs.

The greater the intensity of the training, the greater the carbohydrate requirement.

Food carbohydrates are made up of complex starches (pasta, rice, potatoes, cereals...) with gradual energy release and simple sugars (e.g. glucose and fructose contained in honey, fruit...) with immediate energy release, defined as high index glycemic.

In the swimmer's diet, carbohydrates must be consumed regularly, both during meals and during training sessions.

The human body has a limited reserve of carbohydrates (approximately 300-500 g which correspond to 1200-1600 Kcal) which are deposited in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen after the intake of starch-rich foods.

It is important, in particular, to favor complex carbohydrates coming from pasta and brown rice, or Maltodextrins.

Simple sugars, glucose and sucrose, provide immediate but slow-lasting energy.

An initial burst of energy is then followed by a possible condition of weakness, asthenia, hypotension and/or hunger crisis.

Simple sugars are to be favored only in "crisis" situations and after exercise, for a rapid restoration of glycogen supplies.

However, the large commitment of the swimmer's muscle mass also requires high attention to the intake of PROTEIN FOODS, specifically capable of supporting the efficiency of the muscular and endocrine-immune tissues.

During prolonged efforts, they also contribute to energy needs by transforming into sugars and maintain the efficiency of the immune, endocrine, nervous and digestive systems.

Practical indications for training:

BREAKFAST (should never be skipped): with toasted bread or biscuits with jam + milk or tea or yoghurt, freshly squeezed juice or fruit smoothie (plenty of portion).

SNACK: dry sweet or savory baked goods (crakers, flat bread) or sandwiches with cured meatslean + fruit

LUNCH: (at least 1 hour and a half before training): with a plate of pasta or rice seasoned with oil, parmesan, tomato (100 g) + a fruit such as an apple.

SNACK: after training it must be abundant (sandwich with lean sausages; or homemade desserts, biscuits, bread and jam;

DINNER: with first course + second course (meat or fish) + fresh or cooked vegetables + fruit (normal ration)