## Swimming Test

The swimming differential test is used to estimate the pace to keep in various exercises.

This test is used in particular to evaluate pace in workouts identified with the code:

• B2 (or VO2Max, maximum oxygen consumption),
• B1 (anaerobic threshold) and A2 (aerobic threshold).

The differential is the difference between the time of two performances of different duration, typically two types of differential are used:

• the 100-200 differential, i.e. the difference between the performance over 200 meters and that over 100 metres;/span>
• the 200-400 differential, i.e. the difference between the performance over 400 meters and that over 200 metres.

We are talking about maximum performance, which can be race times or measurements taken during training, the important thing is that the conditions are equivalent, both in terms of conditions for carrying out the tests (length of the pool, starting with the dive or from the edge), than in terms of form (the two detections must be recent).

### What exactly does the differential test indicate?

Swimming differential test
• The 100-200 differential (D100) tells us the pace we must keep in a B2 type workout, divided into repetitions of 100 meters.
• The 400-200 (D200) differential tells us the pace we need to keep in a B2 type workout, divided into repetitions of 200 meters.

The pace obtained from the two tests is different (the D200 is greater, i.e. slower) because they do not absolutely indicate our pace in a VO2Max maximal test, i.e. in a 7-minute maximal test, but they indicate the pace we must hold when type B2 training is divided into repetitions of 100 or 200 meters.

##### How to calculate Max Heart Rate:

The most reliable methodis to apply the following formula: HR max = 207 – 0.7 x age

Another better known method butless reliable.

This is the Haskell and Fox formula, also called the Astrand formula: HR max = 220 – age.

With specific training, the intensity at which lactate production begins can be increased: for an untrained subject it is approximately 55-60% of Vo2Max, while for a trained subject it is 75-80%.
Furthermore, research has shown that V02 max increases only during the first 8-12 weeks of training, then stabilizes even if training intensity increases.
Vo2Max is commonly accepted as the best measure of cardiovascular fitness and maximal aerobic power. Absolute Vo2Max values ​​are usually 40-60% higher in men.

A young male non-competitor has a Vo2Max of around 3-5 litres/minute.

A young female competitor has a Vo2Max of 2.0 liters/minute.

These values ​​can improve with training and worsen with age; the degree of trainability of this “Vo2Max” factor also varies a lot: good training can double the Vo2Max value in some individuals and not improve it at all in others.